Title II – Income Taxation, CHAPTER VIII – Accounting Periods and Methods of Accounting
SECTION 43. General Rule. – The taxable income shall be computed upon the basis of the taxpayer’s annual accounting period (fiscal year or calendar year, as the case may be) in accordance with the method of accounting regularly employed in keeping the books of such taxpayer; but if no such method of accounting has been so employed, or if the method employed does not clearly reflect the income, the computation shall be made in accordance with such method as in the opinion of the Commissioner clearly reflects the income. If the taxpayer’s annual accounting period is other than a fiscal year, as defined in Section 22(Q), or if the taxpayer has no annual accounting period, or does not keep books, or if the taxpayer is an individual, the taxable income shall be computed on the basis of the calendar year.
SECTION 44. Period in which Items of Gross Income Included. – The amount of all items of gross income shall be included in the gross income for the taxable year in which received by the taxpayer, unless, under methods of accounting permitted under Section 43, any such amounts are to be properly accounted for as of a different period. In the case of the death of a taxpayer, there shall be included in computing taxable income for the taxable period in which falls the date of his death, amounts accrued up to the date of his death if not otherwise properly includible in respect of such period or a prior period.
SECTION 45. Period for which Deductions and Credits Taken. – The deductions provided for in this Title shall be taken for the taxable year in which ‘paid or accrued’ or ‘paid or incurred’, dependent upon the method of accounting upon the basis of which the net income is computed, unless in order to clearly reflect the income, the deductions should be taken as of a different period. In the case of the death of a taxpayer, there shall be allowed as deductions for the taxable period in which falls the date of his death, amounts accrued up to the date of his death if not otherwise properly allowable in respect of such period or a prior period.
SECTION 46. Change of Accounting Period. – If a taxpayer, other than an individual, changes his accounting period from fiscal year to calendar year, from calendar year to fiscal year, or from one fiscal year to another, the net income shall, with the approval of the Commissioner, be computed on the basis of such new accounting period, subject to the provisions of Section 47.
SECTION 47. Final or Adjustment Returns for a Period of Less than Twelve (12) Months. –
(A) Returns for Short Period Resulting from Change of Accounting Period. – If a taxpayer, other than an individual, with the approval of the Commissioner, changes the basis of computing net income from fiscal year to calendar year, a separate final or adjustment return shall be made for the period between the close of the last fiscal year for which return was made and the following December 31. If the change is from calendar year to fiscal year, a separate final or adjustment return shall be made for the period between the close of the last calendar year for which return was made and the date designated as the close of the fiscal year. If the change is from one fiscal year to another fiscal year, a separate final or adjustment return shall be made for the period between the close of the former fiscal year and the date designated as the close of the new fiscal year.
(B) Income Computed on Basis of Short Period. – Where a separate final or adjustment return is made under Subsection (A) on account of a change in the accounting period, and in all other cases where a separate final or adjustment return is required or permitted by rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Finance, upon recommendation of the Commissioner, to be made for a fractional part of a year, then the income shall be computed on the basis of the period for which separate final or adjustment return is made.
SECTION 48. Accounting for Long-term Contracts. – Income from long-term contracts shall be reported for tax purposes in the manner as provided in this Section. As used herein, the term ‘long-term contracts’ means building, installation or construction contracts covering a period in excess of one (1) year. Persons whose gross income is derived in whole or in part from such contracts shall report such income upon the basis of percentage of completion. The return should be accompanied by a return certificate of architects or engineers showing the percentage of completion during the taxable year of the entire work performed under contract. There should be deducted from such gross income all expenditures made during the taxable year on account of the contract, account being taken of the material and supplies on hand at the beginning and end of the taxable period for use in connection with the work under the contract but not yet so applied. If upon completion of a contract, it is found that the taxable net income arising thereunder has not been clearly reflected for any year or years, the Commissioner may permit or require an amended return.
SECTION 49. Installment Basis. –
(A) Sales of Dealers in Personal Property. – Under rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Finance, upon recommendation of the Commissioner, a person who regularly sells or otherwise disposes of personal property on the installment plan may return as income therefrom in any taxable year that proportion of the installment payments actually received in that year, which the gross profit realized or to be realized when payment is completed, bears to the total contract price.
(B) Sales of Realty and Casual Sales of Personalty. – In the case (1) of a casual sale or other casual disposition of personal property (other than property of a kind which would properly be included in the inventory of the taxpayer if on hand at the close of the taxable year), for a price exceeding One thousand pesos (P1,000), or (2) of a sale or other disposition of real property, if in either case the initial payments do not exceed twenty-five percent (25%) of the selling price, the income may, under rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Finance, upon recommendation of the Commissioner, be returned on the basis and in the manner above prescribed in this Section. As used in this Section, the term ‘initial payments’ means the payments received in cash or property other than evidences of indebtedness of the purchaser during the taxable period in which the sale or other disposition is made.
(C) Sales of Real Property Considered as Capital Asset by Individuals. – An individual who sells or disposes of real property, considered as capital asset, and is otherwise qualified to report the gain therefrom under Subsection (B) may pay the capital gains tax in installments under rules and regulations to be promulgated by the Secretary of Finance, upon recommendation of the Commissioner.
(D) Change from Accrual to Installment Basis. – If a taxpayer entitled to the benefits of Subsection (A) elects for any taxable year to report his taxable income on the installment basis, then in computing his income for the year of change or any subsequent year, amounts actually received during any such year on account of sales or other dispositions of property made in any prior year shall not be excluded.
SECTION 50. Allocation of Income and Deductions. – In the case of two or more organizations, trades or businesses (whether or not incorporated and whether or not organized in the Philippines) owned or controlled directly or indirectly by the same interests, the Commissioner is authorized to distribute, apportion or allocate gross income or deductions between or among such organization, trade or business, if he determines that such distribution, apportionment or allocation is necessary in order to prevent evasion of taxes or clearly to reflect the income of any such organization, trade or business.
(Manual encoding credits: Jacky Margaret Adriano)
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