SECTION 205. Remedies for the collection of Delinquent Taxes. – The civil remedies for the collection of internal revenue taxes, fees, or charges, and any increment thereto resulting from delinquency shall be:
(a) By distraint of goods, chattels, or effects, and other personal property of whatever character, including stocks and other securities, debts, credits, bank accounts, and interest in and rights to personal property, and by levy upon real property and interest in or rights to real property; and
(b) By civil or criminal action.
Either of these remedies or both simultaneously may be pursued in the discretion of the authorities charged with the collection of such taxes: Provided, however, that the remedies of distraint and levy shall not be availed of where the amount of tax involved is not more than One hundred pesos (P100).
The judgement in the criminal cases shall not only impose the penalty but shall also order payment of the taxes subject of the criminal cases as finally decided by the Commissioner.
The Bureau of Internal Revenue shall advance the amounts needed to defray costs of collection by means of civil or criminal action, including the preservation or transportation of personal property distrained and the advertisement and sale thereof, as well as real property and improvements thereon.
SECTION 206. Constructive Distraint of the Property of a Taxpayer. – To safeguard the interest of the Government, the Commissioner may place under constructive distraint the property of a delinquent taxpayer or any taxpayer who, in his opinion, is retiring from any business subject to tax, or is intending to leave the Philippines or to remove his property therefrom or to hide or conceal his property or to perform any act tending to obstruct the proceedings for collecting the tax due or which may be due from him.
The constructive distraint of personal property shall be effected by requiring the taxpayer or any person having possession or control of such property to sign a receipt covering the property distrained and obligate himself to preserve the same intact and unaltered and not to dispose of the same in any manner whatever, without the express authority of the Commissioner.
In case the taxpayer or the person having the possession and control of the property sought to be placed under constructive distraint refuses or fails to sign the receipt herein referred to, the revenue officer effecting the constructive distraint shall proceed to prepare a list of such property and, in the presence of two (2) witnesses, leave a copy thereof in the premises where the property distrained is located, after which the said property shall be deemed to have been place under constructive distraint.
SECTION 207. Summary Remedies. –
(A) Distraint of Personal Property. – Upon the failure of the person owing any delinquent tax or delinquent revenue to pay the same at the time required, the Commissioner or his duly authorized representative, if the amount involved is in excess of One million pesos (P1,000,000), or the Revenue District Officer, if the amount involved is One million pesos (P1,000,000) or less, shall seize and distraint any goods, or effects, and the personal property, including stocks and other securities, debts, credits, bank accounts, and interests in and rights to personal property of such persons in sufficient quantity to satisfy the tax, or charge, together with any increment thereto incident to delinquency, and the express of the distraint and the cost of the subsequent sale.
A report on the distraint shall, within ten (10) days from receipt of the warrant, be submitted by the distraining officer to the Revenue District Officer, and to the Revenue Regional Director: Provided, That the Commission or duly authorized representative shall, subject to the rules and regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Finance upon recommendation of the Commissioner, have the power to lift such order of distraint: Provided, further, That a consolidated report by the Revenue Regional Director may be required by the Commissioner as often as necessary.
(B) Levy on Real Property. – After the expiration of the time required to pay the delinquent tax or delinquent revenue as prescribed in this Section, real property may be levied upon, before, simultaneously or after the distraint of personal property belonging to the delinquent. To this end, any internal revenue officer designated by the Commissioner or his duly authorized representative shall prepare a duly authenticated certificate showing the name of the taxpayer and the amounts of the tax and penalty due from him. Said certificate shall operate with the force of a legal execution throughout the Philippines.
Levy shall be effected by writing upon said certificate a description of the property upon which levy is made. At the same time, written notice of the levy shall be mailed to served upon the Register of Deeds of the province or city where the property is located and upon the delinquent taxpayer, or if he be absent from the Philippines, to his agent or the manager of the business in respect to which the liability arose, or if there be none, to the occupant of the property in question.
In case the warrant of levy on real property is not issued before or simultaneously with the warrant of distraint on personal property, and the personal property of the taxpayer is not sufficient to satisfy his tax delinquency, the Commissioner or his duly authorized representative shall, within thirty (30) days after execution of the distraint, proceed with the levy on the taxpayer’s real property.
Within ten (10) days after receipt of the warrant, a report on any levy shall be submitted by the levying officer to the Commissioner or his authorized representative: Provided, however, That a consolidated report by the Revenue Regional Director may be required by the Commissioner as often as necessary: Provided, further, That the Commissioner or his duly authorized representative, subject to rules and regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Finance, upon recommendation of the Commissioner, shall have the authority to lift warrants of levy issued in accordance with the provisions hereof.
SECTION 208. Procedure for Distraint and Garnishment. – The officer serving the warrant of distraint shall make or cause to be made an account of the goods, chattels,effects or other personal property distrained, a copy of which, signed by himself, shall be left either with the owner or person from whose possession such goods, chattels, or effects or other personal property were taken, or at the dwelling or place of business of such person and with someone of suitable age and discretion, to which list shall be added a statement of the sum demanded and note of the time and place of sale.
Stocks and other securities shall be distrained by serving a copy of the warrant of distraint upon the taxpayer and upon the president, manager, treasurer or other responsible officer of the corporation, company or association, which issued the said stocks or securities.
Debts and credits shall be distrained by leaving with the person owing the debts or having in his possession or under his control such credits, or with his agent, a copy of the warrant of distraint. The warrant of distraint shall be sufficient authority to the person owning the debts or having in his possession or under his control any credits belonging to the taxpayer to pay to the Commissioner the amount of such debts or credits.
Bank accounts shall be garnished by serving a warrant of garnishment upon the taxpayer and upon the president, manager, treasurer or other responsible officer of the bank. Upon receipt of the warrant of garnishment, the bank shall turn over to the Commissioner so much of the bank accounts as may be sufficient to satisfy the claim of the Government.
SECTION 209. Sale of Property Distrained and Disposition of Proceeds. – The revenue District officer or his duly authorized representative, other than the officer referred to in Section 208 of this Code shall, according to rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Finance, Upon the recommendation of the Commissioner, forthwith cause a notification to be exhibited in not less than two (2) public places in the municipality or city where the distraint is made, specifying the time and place of sale and the articles distrained. The time of sale shall not be less than twenty (20) days after notice to the owner or possessor of the property as above specified and the publication or posting of such notice. One place for the posting of such notice shall be at the Office of the Mayor of the city or municipality in which the property is distrained.
At the time and place fixed in such notice, the said revenue officer shall sell the goods, chattels, or effects, or other personal property, including stocks and other securities so distrained, at public auction, to the highest bidder for cash, or with the approval of the Commissioner, through duly licensed commodity or stock exchanges.
In the case of stocks and other securities, the officer making the sale shall execute a bill of sale which he shall deliver to the buyer, and a copy thereof furnished the corporation, company or association which issued the stocks or other securities. Upon receipt of the copy of the bill, the corporation, company or association shall make the corresponding entry in its books, transfer the stocks or other securities sold in the name of the buyer, and issue, if required to do so, the corresponding certificates of stock or other securities.
Any residue over and above what is required to pay the entire claim, including expenses, shall be returned to the owner of the property sold. The expenses chargeable upon each seizure and sale shall embrace only the actual expenses of seizure and preservation of the property pending the sale, and no charge shall be imposed for the services of the local internal revenue officer or his deputy.
SECTION 210. Release of Distrained Property Upon Payment Prior to Sale. – If at any time prior to the consummation of the sale all proper charges are paid to the officer conducting the sale, the goods or effects distrained shall be restored to the owner.
SECTION 211. Report of Sale to Bureau of Internal Revenue. – Within two (2) days after the sale, the officer making the same shall make a report of his proceedings in writing to the Commissioner and shall himself preserve a copy of such report as an official record.
SECTION 212. Purchase by Government at Sale Upon Distraint. – When the amount bid for the property under distraint is not equal to the amount of the tax or is very much less than the actual market value of the articles offered for sale, the Commissioner or his deputy may purchase the same in behalf of the National Government for the amount of taxes, penalties and cost due thereon.
Property so purchased may be resold by the Commissioner or his deputy, subject to the rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Finance, the net proceeds therefrom shall be remitted to the National Treasury and accounted for as internal revenue.
SECTION 213. Advertisement and Sale. – Within twenty (20) days after levy, the officer conducting the proceedings shall proceed to advertise the property or a usable portion thereof as may be necessary to satisfy the claim and cost of sale; and such advertisement shall cover a period of at least thirty (30) days. It shall be effectuated by posting a notice at the main entrance of the municipal building or city hall and in a public and conspicuous place in the barrio or district in which the real estate lies and by publication once a week for three (3) weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the municipality or city where the property is located. The advertisement shall contain a statement of the amount of taxes and penalties so due and the time and place of sale, the name of the taxpayer against whom taxes are levied, and a short description of the property to be sold. At any time before the day fixed for the sale, the taxpayer may discontinue all proceedings by paying the taxes, penalties and interest. If he does not do so, the sale shall proceed and shall be held either at the main entrance of the municipal building or city hall, or on the premises to be sold, as the officer conducting the proceedings shall determine and as the notice of sale shall specify.
Within five (5) days after the sale, a return by the distraining or levying officer of the proceedings shall be entered upon the records of the Revenue Collection Officer, the Revenue District Officer and the Revenue Regional Director. The Revenue Collection Officer, in consultation with the Revenue District Officer, shall then make out and deliver to the purchaser a certificate from his records, showing the proceedings of the sale, describing the property sold, stating the name of the purchaser and setting out the exact amount of all taxes, penalties and interest: Provided, however, That in the case the proceeds of the sale exceeds the claim and cost of sale, the excess shall be turned over to the owner of the property.
The Revenue Collection officer, upon approval by the Revenue District Officer may, out of his collection, advance an amount sufficient to defray the costs of collection by means of the summary remedies provided for in this Code, including the preservation or transportation in case of personal property, and the advertisement and subsequent sale, both in cases of personal and real property including improvements found on the latter. In his monthly collection reports, such advances, shall be reflected and supported by receipts.
SECTION 214. Redemption of Property Sold. – Within one (1) year from the date of sale, the delinquent taxpayer, or any one for him, shall have the right of paying to the Revenue District Officer the amount of the public taxes, penalties, and interest thereon from the date of delinquency to the date of sale, together with interest on said purchase price at the rate of fifteen percent (15%) per annum from the date of purchase to the date of redemption, and such payment shall entitle the person paying to the delivery of the certificate issued to the purchaser and a certificate from the said Revenue District Officer that he has thus redeemed the property, an the Revenue District Officer shall forthwith pay over to the purchaser the amount by which such property has thus been redeemed, and said property thereafter shall be free from the lien of such taxes and penalties.
The Owner shall not, however, be deprived of the possession of the said property and shall be entitled to the rents and other income thereof until the expiration of the time for its redemption.
SECTION 215. Forfeiture to Government for Want of Bidder. – In case there is no bidder for real property exposed for sale as hereinabove provided or if the highest bid is for an amount insufficient to pay the taxes, penalties and costs, the Internal Revenue Officer conducting the sale shall declare the property forfeited to the Government in satisfaction of the claim in question and within two (2) days thereafter, shall make a return of his proceedings and the forfeiture which shall be spread upon the records of his office. It shall be the duty of the Register of Deeds concerned, upon registration with his office of any such declaration of forfeiture, to transfer the title of the property forfeited to the Government without the necessity of an order from a competent court.
Within one (1) year from the date of such forfeiture, the taxpayer, or any one for him, may redeem said property by paying to the Commissioner or the latter’s Revenue Collection Officer the full amount of the taxes and penalties, together with interest thereon and the costs of sale, but if the property be not thus redeemed, the forfeiture shall become absolute.
SECTION 216. Resale of Real Estate Taken for Taxes. – The Commissioner shall have charge of any real estate obtained by the Government of the Philippines in payment or satisfaction of taxes, penalties or costs arising under this Code or in compromise or adjustment of any claim therefor; and said Commissioner may, upon the giving of not less than twenty (20) days notice, sell and dispose of the same at public auction, or with the prior approval of the Secretary of Finance, dispose of the same at private sale. In either case, the proceeds of the sale shall be deposited with the National Treasury, and an accounting of the same shall be rendered to the Chairman of the Commission on Audit.
SECTION 217. Further Distraint or Levy. – The remedy by distraint of personal property and levy on realty may be repeated if necessary until the full amount due, including all expenses, is collected.
SECTION 218. Injunction not Available to Restrain Collection of Tax. – No court shall have the authority to grant an injunction to restrain the collection of any national internal revenue tax, fee or charge imposed by this Code.
SECTION 219. Nature and Extent of Tax Lien. – If any person, corporation, partnership, joint-account (cuentas en participacion), association or insurance company liable to pay an internal revenue tax, neglects or refuses to pay the same after demand, the amount shall be a lien in favor of the Government of the Philippines from the time when the assessment was made by the Commissioner until paid, with interests, penalties, and costs that may accrue in addition thereto upon all property and rights to property belonging to the taxpayer: Provided, That this lien shall not be valid against any mortgagee, purchaser or judgement creditor until notice of such lien shall be filed by the Commissioner in the office of the Register of Deeds of the province or city where the property of the taxpayer is situated or located.
SECTION 220. Form and Mode of Proceeding in Actions Arising under this Code. – Civil and criminal actions and proceedings instituted in behalf of the Government under the authority of this Code or other law enforced by the Bureau of Internal revenue shall be brought in the name of the Government of the Philippines and shall be conducted by legal officers of the Bureau of Internal Revenue but no civil or criminal action for the recovery of taxes or the enforcement of any fine, penalty or forfeiture under this Code shall be filed in court without the approval of the Commissioner.
SECTION 221. Remedy for Enforcement of Statutory Penal Provisions. – The remedy for enforcement of statutory penalties of all sorts shall be by criminal or civil action, as the particular situation may require, subject to the approval of the Commissioner.
SECTION 222. Exceptions as to Period of Limitation of Assessment and Collection of Taxes. –
(a) In the case of a false or fraudulent return with intent to evade tax or of failure to file return, the tax may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for the collection of such tax may be filed without assessment, at any time within ten (10) years after the discovery of the falsity, fraud or omission: Provided, That in a fraud assessment which has become final and executory, the fact of fraud shall be judicially taken cognizance of in the civil or criminal action for the collection thereof.
(b) If before the expiration of the time prescribed in Section 203 for the assessment of the tax, both the Commissioner and the taxpayer have agreed in writing to its assessment after such time, the tax may be assessed within the period agreed upon. The period so agreed upon may be extended by subsequent written agreement made before the expiration of the period previously agreed upon.
(c) Any internal revenue tax which has been assessed within the period of limitation as prescribed in paragraph (a) hereof may be collected by distraint or levy or by a proceeding in court within five (5) years following the assessment of the tax.
(d) Any internal revenue tax, which has been assessed within the period agreed upon as provided in paragraph (b) hereinabove, may be collected by distraint or levy or by a proceeding in court within the period agreed upon in writing before the expiration of the five (5)-year period. The period so agreed upon may be extended by subsequent written agreements made before the expiration of the period previously agreed upon.
(e) Provided, however, That nothing in the immediately preceding Section and paragraph (a) hereof shall be construed to authorize the examination and investigation or inquiry into any tax return filed in accordance with the provisions of any tax amnesty law or decree.
SECTION 223. Suspension of Running of Statute of Limitations. – The running of statute of limitations provided in Sections 203 and 222 on the making of assessment and the beginning of distraint or levy or a proceeding in court for collection, in respect of any deficiency, shall be suspended for the period during which the Commissioner is prohibited from making the assessment or beginning distraint or levy or a proceeding in court and for sixty (60) days thereafter, when the taxpayer requests for a reinvestigation which is granted by the Commissioner; when the taxpayer cannot be located in the address given by him in the return filed upon which a tax is being assessed or collected: provided, That, if the taxpayer informs the Commissioner of any change in address, the running of the Statute of Limitations will not be suspended; when the warrant of distraint or levy is duly served upon the taxpayer, his authorized representative, or a member of his household with sufficient discretion, and no property could be located; and when the taxpayer is out of the Philippines.
SECTION 224. Remedy for Enforcement of Forfeitures. – The forfeiture of chattels and removable fixtures of any sort shall be enforced by the seizure and sale, or destruction, of the special forfeited property. The forfeiture of real property shall be enforced by a judgement of condemnation and sale in a legal action or proceeding, civil or criminal, as the case may require.
SECTION 225. When Property to be Sold or Destroyed. – Sales of forfeited chattels and removable fixtures shall be effected, so far as practicable, in the same manner and under the same conditions as the public notice and the time and manner of sale as are prescribed for sales of personal property distrained for the non-payment of taxes.
Distilled spirits, liquors, cigars, cigarettes, other manufactured products of tobacco, and all apparatus used in or about the illicit production of such articles may, upon forfeiture, be destroyed by order of the Commissioner, when the sale of the same for consumption or use would be injurious to public health or prejudicial to the enforcement of the law.
All other articles subject to excise tax, which have been manufactured or removed in violation of this Code, as well as dies for the printing or making of internal revenue stamps and labels which are in imitation of or purport to be lawful stamps, or labels may, upon forfeiture, be sold or destroyed in the discretion of the Commissioner.
Forfeited property shall not be destroyed until at least twenty (20) days after seizure.
SECTION 226. Disposition of Funds Recovered in Legal Proceedings or Obtained from Forfeitures. – All judgements and monies recovered and received for taxes, costs, forfeitures, fines and penalties shall be paid to the Commissioner or his authorized deputies as the taxes themselves are required to be paid, and except as specially provided, shall be accounted for and dealt within the same way.
SECTION 227. Satisfaction of Judgement Recovered Against any internal revenue officer. – When an action is brought against any Internal Revenue Officer to recover damages by reason of any act done in the performance of official duty, and the Commissioner is notified of such action in time to make defense against the same, through the Solicitor General, any judgement, damages or costs recovered in such action shall be satisfied by the Commissioner, upon approval of the Secretary of Finance, or if the same be paid by the person sued shall be repaid or reimbursed to him. No such judgement, damages, or costs shall be paid or reimbursed in behalf of a person who has acted negligently or in bad faith, or with willful oppression.
(Manual encoding credits: Magdaleno Abdon, Sept. 2020)
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