Revised Corporation Code (RA 11232) – Title VIII – Corporate Books and Records


Section 73. Books to be Kept; Stock Transfer Agent. – Every corporation shall keep and carefully preserve at its principal office all information relating to corporation, including, but not limited to:

  • (a) The articles of incorporation and bylaws of the corporation and all their amendments;
  • (b) The current ownership structure and voting rights of the corporation, including lists of stockholders or members, group structures, intra-group relations, ownership data, and beneficial ownership;
  • (c) The names and addresses of all the members of the board of directors or trustees and the executive officers;
  • (d) A record of all business transactions;
  • (e) A record of the resolutions of the board of directors or trustees and of the stockholders or members;
  • (f) Copies of the latest reportorial requirements submitted to the Commission; and,
  • (g) The minutes of all meetings of stockholders or members, or of the board of directors or trustees. Such minutes shall set forth in detail, among others: the time and place of meeting held, how it was authorized, the notice given, the agenda therefor, whether the meeting was regular or special, its object if special, those present and absent, and every act done or ordered done at the meeting. Upon the demand of the director, trustee, stockholder or member, the time when any director, trustee, stockholder, or member entered or left the meeting must be noted in the minutes; and on a similar demand, the yeas and nays must be taken on any motion or proposition, and a record thereof carefully made. The protest of a director, trustee, stockholder or member on any action or proposed action must be recorded in full upon their demand.

Corporate records, regardless of the form in which they are stored, shall be open to inspection by any director, trustee, stockholder or member of the corporation in person or by a representative at reasonable hours on business days, and a demand in writing may be made by such director, trustee or stockholder at their expense, for copies of such records or excerpts  from said records. The inspecting or reproducing party shall remain bound by confidentiality rules under prevailing laws, such as the rules on trade secrets or processes under Republic Act No. 8293, otherwise known as the “Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines”, as amended, Republic Act No. 10173, otherwise known as the “Data Privacy Act of 2012”, Republic Act No. 8799, otherwise known as “The Securities Regulation Code”, and the Rules of Court.

A requesting party who is not a stockholder or member of record, or is a competitor, director, officer, controlling stockholder or otherwise represents the interests of a competitor shall have no right to inspect or demand reproduction of corporate records.

Any stockholder who shall abuse the rights granted under this section shall be penalized under Section 158 of this Code, without prejudice to the provisions of Republic Act No. 8293, otherwise known as the “Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines”, as amended, and Republic Act No. 10173, otherwise known as the “Data Privacy Act of 2012”.

Any officer or agent of the corporation who shall refuse to allow the inspection and/or reproduction of records in accordance with the provisions of this Code shall be liable to such director, trustee, stockholder or member for damages, and in addition, shall be guilty of an offense which shall be punishable under Section 161 of this Code: Provided, That if such refusal is made pursuant to a resolution or order of the board of directors or trustees, the liability under this section for such action shall be imposed upon directors or trustees who voted for such refusal: Provided, further, That it shall be a defense to any action under this section that the person demanding to examine and copy excerpts from the corporations records and minutes has improperly used any information secured through any prior examination of the records or minutes of such corporation or of any other corporation, or was not acting in good faith or for a legitimate purpose in making the demand to examine or reproduce corporate records, or is a competitor, director, officer, controlling stockholder or otherwise represents the interest of a competitor.

If the corporation denies or does not act on a demand for inspection and/or reproduction, the aggrieved party may report such denial or inaction to the Commission. Within five (5) days from receipt of such report, the Commission shall conduct a summary investigation and issue an order directing the inspection or reproduction of the requested records.

Stock corporations must also keep a stock and transfer book, which shall contain  a record of all stocks in the name of stockholders alphabetically arranged; the installments paid and unpaid on all stocks for which subscription has been made, and the date of payment of any installment; a statement of every alienation, sale or transfer of stock made, the date thereof, by and to whom made; and such other entries as the bylaws may prescribe. The stock and transfer book shall be kept at the principal office of the corporation or in the office of its stock and transfer agent and shall be open for inspection by any director or stockholder of the corporation at reasonable hours on business days.

A stock and transfer agent or one engaged principally in the business of registering transfers of stocks in behalf of stock corporation shall be allowed to operate in the Philippines upon securing a license from the Commission and the payment of the fee to be fixed by the Commission, which shall be renewable annually; Provided, That a stock corporation is not precluded from performing or making transfers of its own stocks, in which case all the rules and regulations imposed on stock transfer agents, shall be applicable: Provided, further, That the Commission may require stock corporations which transfer and/or trade stocks in secondary markets to have an independent transfer agent.

Section 74. Right to Financial Statements. – A corporation shall furnish a stockholder or member, within ten (10) days from receipt of their written request, its most recent financial statement, in the form and substance of the financial reporting required by the Commission.

At the regular meeting of stockholders or members, the board of directors or trustees shall present to such stockholders or members a financial report of the operations of the corporation for the preceding year, which shall include financial statements, duly signed and certified in accordance with this Code, and the rules the Commission may prescribe. However, if the total assets or total liabilities of the corporation are less than Six Hundred Thousand Pesos (P600,000.00), or such other amount as may be determined appropriate by the Department of Finance, the financial statements may be certified under oath by the treasurer and the president.

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