Revised Corporation Code: Title X – Appraisal Right


Section 80. When the Right of Appraisal May Be Exercised. – Any stockholder of a corporation shall have the right to dissent and demand payment of the fair value of the shares in the following instances:

  • (a) In case an amendment to the articles of incorporation has the effect of changing or restricting the rights of any stockholder or class of shares, or of authorizing preferences in any respect superior to those of outstanding shares of any class, or of extending or shortening the term of corporate existence:
  • (b) In case of sale, lease, exchange, transfer, mortgage, pledge, or other disposition of all or substantially all of the corporate property and assets as provided in this Code;
  • (c) In case of merger or consolidation; and
  • (d) In case of investment of corporate funds for any purpose other than the primary purpose of the corporation.

Section 81. How Right is Exercise. – The dissenting stockholder who votes against a proposed corporate action may exercise the right of appraisal by making a written demand on the corporation for the payment of the fair market value of shares held within thirty (30) days from the date on which the vote was taken: Provided, That failure to make the demand within such period shall be deemed a waiver of the appraisal right. If the proposed corporate action is implemented, the corporation shall pay the stockholder, upon surrender of the certificate or certificates of stock representing the stockholder’s shares, the fair value thereof as of the day before the vote was taken, excluding any appreciation or depreciation in anticipation of such corporate action.

If within sixty (60) days from the approval of the corporate action by the stockholders, the withdrawing stockholder and the corporation cannot agree on the fair value of the shares, it shall be determined and appraised by three (3) disinterested persons, one of whom shall be named by the stockholder, another by the corporation, and the third by the two (2) thus chosen. The findings of the majority of the appraisers shall be final, and their award shall be paid by the corporation within thirty (30) days after such award is made: Provided, That no payment shall be made to any dissenting stockholder unless the corporation has unrestricted retained earnings in its books to cover such payment: Provided, further, That upon payment of the corporation of the agreed or awarded price, the stockholder shall forthwith transfer the shares to the corporation.

Section 82. Effect of Demand and Termination of Right. – From the time of demand for payment of the fair value of a stockholder’s shares until either the abandonment of the corporate action involved or the purchase of the said shares by the corporation, all rights accruing to such shares, including voting and dividend rights, shall be suspended in accordance with the provisions of this Code, except the right of such stockholder to receive payment for the fair value thereof: Provided, That if the dissenting stockholder is not paid the value of the said shares within thirty (30) days after the award, the voting and dividend rights shall immediately restored.

Section 83. When Right to Payment Ceases. – No demand for payment under this Title may be withdrawn unless the corporation consents thereto. If, however, such demand for payment is withdrawn with the consent of the corporation, or if the proposed corporate action is abandoned or rescinded by the corporation or disapproved by the Commission where such approval is necessary, or if the Commission determines that such stockholder is not entitled to the appraisal right, then the right of the stockholder to be paid the fair value of the shares shall cease, the status as the stockholder shall be restored, and all dividend distributions which would have accrued on the shares shall be paid to the stockholder.

Section 84. Who bears the Costs of Appraisal. – The costs and expenses of appraisal shall be borne by the corporation, unless the fair value ascertained by the appraisers is approximately the same as the price which the corporation may have offered to pay the stockholder, in which case they shall be borne by the latter. In the case of an action to recover such fair value, all costs and expenses shall be assessed against the corporation, unless the refusal of the stockholder to receive payment was unjustified.

Section 85. Notation on Certificates; Rights of Transferee. – Within ten (10) days after demanding payment for shares held, a dissenting stockholder shall submit the certificates of stock representing the shares to the corporation for notation that such shares are dissenting shares. Failure to do so shall, at the option of the corporation, terminate the rights under this Title. If the shares represented by the certificates bearing such notation are transferred, and the certificates consequently cancelled, the rights of the transferor as a dissenting stockholder under this Title shall cease and the transferee shall have all the rights of a regular stockholder; and all dividend distributions which would have accrued on such shares shall be paid to the transferee.

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