Internal Revenue Taxes in the Philippines

The National Internal Revenue Code of 1997 (Tax Code) under Republic Act No. 8424, as amended or the Tax Reform Act of 1997 enumerates the internal revenue taxes imposed and administered by the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) under Section 21 as follows:

SEC. 21. Sources of Revenue. – The following taxes, fees and charges are deemed to be national internal revenue taxes:

(a) Income tax;
(b) Estate and donor’s taxes;
(c) Value-added tax;
(d) Other percentage taxes;
(e) Excise taxes;
(f) Documentary stamp taxes; and
(g) Such other taxes as are or hereafter may be imposed and collected by the Bureau of Internal Revenue.

For better understanding, let us give you an overview of each of them. These taxes are of general tax classifications, and may contain sub classifications. In classrooms, these taxes are divided in two (2) parts – Part I for Income Taxes, and Part II – for Transfer and Business Taxes. For Accounting (BSA) and Law (LLB) course, a third part is added for the tax review covering all the two (2) parts.

Income tax. This is an annual tax on the income generated from the trade, business, profession, employment or office, dealings on property, and all other instances of flow of wealth to the taxpayer other than mere return of capital. Income tax base would depend on the nature of income, the classification of individual or corporate taxpayer, and the income tax type applicable. Income tax type is a broad classification, and sub-classifications would include – capital gains tax (CGT), minimum corporate income tax (MCIT), final taxes on passive income (FWT), withholding tax on compensation (WC), creditable or expanded withholding tax (CWT or EWT), and even stock transaction tax for sale of listed shares through the local stock exchange would fall under this classification. Read more on the following articles…Basic Income Taxation of Corporations, and Overview of Deductible Expenses in the Philippines

Estate Tax. This is levied, assessed, collected and paid upon the transfer of the net estate of every decedent, whether resident or nonresident of the Philippines based on the value of the net estate.

Donor’s Tax. This is a tax levied, assessed, collected and paid upon the transfer by any person, resident or nonresident, of the property (whether real or personal, tangible or intangible) by gift – direct or indirect. This is imposed on donations or gifts to another who accepts the same. Tax would depend on the citizenship or residence of donor, the relationship to the donee, and the nature of the property. Donations to relatives by a single donor is exempt to the extent of P100,000.00 within every calendar year. Read more on the Overview of Donor’s Tax in the Philippines.

Value-added tax. This is imposed upon any person, who, in the course of trade or business, sells, barters, exchanges, leases goods or properties, renders services, and any person who imports goods. This is an indirect tax and is normally passed on to the buyer. As a consumption tax, the ultimate consumer shoulders that VAT imposed on the goods or service along the distribution line. Read more on the Overview of Value Added Tax in the Philippines.

Other percentage tax. Is a business tax like value-added tax (VAT) that is imposed upon persons whose business is normally subject to VAT, but, whose gross sales or receipts does not exceed P1,919,500.00 within 12 months. This is likewise imposed upon specific entities selected by law like banks, common carriers irregardless of gross sales or gross receipts within the 12-month period.Read more on the Overview of Percentage Tax in the Philippines.

Excise tax. This tax apply to certain goods manufactured or produced in the Philippines for domestic sales or consumption or for any other disposition and things imported. This is imposed in addition to the value added tax. Examples of this are sin taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and alcoholic products.

Documentary stamp tax. This is a tax imposed upon documents, instruments, loan agreements and papers, and upon acceptances, assignments, sales and transfers or the obligation, right or property incident thereto. Either of parties to the taxable document may be held liable and if one is exempt, the other shall be held liable. Example of this is the documentary stamp tax (DST) on lease agreements of office space, business loans and advances, sales of real properties in the Philippines, issuance of shares of stock. Read more on the Overview of Documentary Stamp Tax in the Philippines.

Other taxes. This is a catch all enumeration for those taxes that may later be imposed.

The above are enumeration of internal revenue taxes imposed by the Bureau of Internal Revenue under the National Internal Revenue Code. Some taxes may apply to your business, but the same may be administered by other government agencies like Bureau of Customs on import and export transactions, and the Local Government Units like on business taxes, real property taxes.

Disclaimer: This article is for general conceptual guidance only and is not a substitute for an expert opinion. Please consult your preferred tax and/or legal consultant for the specific details applicable to your circumstances. For comments, you may also please send mail at info(@), or you may post a question at Tax and Accounting Center Forum and participate therein.

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